What is a disc?
A slipped disc is when the soft part of the disc bulges through
the circle of connective tissue.
The spine is made up of the vertebrae (the bones making up the
spine), which have cartilage discs between them.
What is restless legs syndrome (RLS)?
This is a condition characterised by unpleasant burning, prickling, tickling or aching sensations in the muscles of the legs.
In 1861. Wittmaack described it as 'Anxietas tibiarum'. Ekbom in 1945 reported hi...
What is PMR?
Polymyalgia (poly = many; myalgia = aching muscles) rheumatica
(PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic condition.
It affects around 4 per 1000 people over the age of 50. The usual onset is after age 60. Symptoms can start abruptly, or...
You can now buy hundreds of over-the-counter remedies that claim to ease the pain of arthritis. But, are they going to help or are they simply a waste of money?
We look at some of the key treatments for joint pain and inflammation and ask the exper...
Why prevent falls at home?
About 1 in 20 falls at home results in a bone fracture and of
these, one in five is a hip fracture. Hip fractures have a high mortality rate;
some 10 per cent of patients are dead within a month. In addition many o...
A good calcium intake is essential throughout life for
osteoporosis is a
condition that should be prevented from occurring. But this is unrealistic
given our present state of knowledge and ability to influen...
What are bone density scans?
Bone scans measure the amount of bone in a particular site of
the body, usually the lower part of the spine, the hip, the forearm or the
Doctors use the scans to help them to assess the likelihood of
Osteoporosis affects one in three women over 50.
Osteoporosis is where the amount of bone tissue in the body is
below what is normal for a person, taking into account their sex and age.
Put simply, osteoporosis causes weaker bones,...
What is osteoarthritis?
Around 8 out of 10 people over the age of 50 are affected.
Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints affecting almost everybody as they get older. Around 8 out of 10 people over the age of 50 are affected.
What is gout?
Gout, otherwise known as
podagra or uric acid arthropathy, is a rheumatic complaint, which usually attacks a single joint at a time.
The disease has a preference for the big toe of middle-aged men
– it swells, turns r...
What is fibromyalgia?
Fibromyalgia (previously called fibrositis) is a common
'rheumatic' disorder – where complaints arise from muscles, tendons
and ligaments rather than the joints.
Although the tissues involved do not
What is giant cell arteritis?
Arteritis means inflammation of the arteries. It is one of those conditions in which the body's own immune system appears to
'attack' it's own tissues, in this case the lining of the
arteries of the body. These a...
What is arthritis?
Arthritis simply means a painful condition of the joints.
There are different types of the disease – many inflammatory,
for example rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and others more degenerative in nature,
Reducing the amount you smoke is a start and better than nothing, but the ultimate goal should be to quit altogether.
Addiction to tobacco is both physical and psychological. Every
smoker knows how difficult it is to stop smoking or even c...
What is chronic bronchitis?
Smoking is the main cause of more than 8 out of 10 cases of chronic bronchitis and quitting smoking is the most effective thing you can do to stay as healthy as possible in the long-term.
What is pneumonia?
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung tissue affecting one or
both sides of the chest that often occurs as a result of an infection.
Infection can be caused by a lot of different micro-organisms – viruses (eg
What is flu?
Flu viruses can be transmitted to your hands when covering the
nose and mouth when sneezing.
Influenza is a highly contagious virus infection affecting the
What are the symptoms?
What is the difference between veins and arteries?
The heart pumps blood through the arteries to all parts of the
body – the vital organs, the head, arms and legs. The blood is then spread
through tiny vessels called capillaries which ...
Exercise reduces insulin resistance in Type 2
The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach
and has two main functions:
to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help
us digest fo...
What is a stroke?
A stroke happens when the blood supply to the
brain is disturbed in some way. As a result, brain cells are starved of oxygen.
This causes some cells to die and leaves other cells damaged.
Types of stroke
The best exercise for your heart is aerobic activity like walking.
Exercise is good for the heart and circulation.
Research has shown that regular physical activity can speed recovery from a heart attack.
It can also help to prevent symptoms wor...
The British Heart Foundation recommends eating oily fish to keep your heart healthy.
What you eat can have a big impact on the health of your heart.
A poor diet full of high-fat, sugary and salt-laden foods can contribute to weight gain, raise blo...
What is it?
The most common veins affected by DVT are those of the legs or
within the pelvis.
Thrombosis occurs when a clot forms in the blood, blocking a blood vessel.
If the blood clot occurs within a major vein, the cond...
What is a coronary thrombosis?
A heart attack will cause severe chest pains behind the breast bone, often radiating towards the left arm.
The heart is surrounded by three major coronary arteries that
supply it with blood and oxyg...
What is atherosclerosis?
What is an artery?
An artery is a blood vessel.
The coronary arteries carry blood to the heart.
Atherosclerosis refers to the build up of fatty deposits called
plaques in the walls of the arteries.
What is angina?
Angina causes crushing pain in the centre of the
Angina pectoris is a phrase that comes from Latin and
translates as 'tight chest'.
People with angina experience pain in the centre of the chest.
it's important to keep yourself as physically and mentally active as possible.
In this way, mind and body functions can be maintained to the greatest possible
Regular physiotherapy can help body functioning.
What is Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disease of the
nervous system associated with trembling of the arms and legs, stiffness and
rigidity of the muscles and slowness of movement (bradykinesia).
A third of t...
What is multi-infarct dementia?
Multi-infarct dementia mainly affects elderly people with arteriosclerosis.
Multi-infarct dementia is a form of dementia caused by large
numbers of small blood clots (emboli) in the brain that star...
What is Huntington's disease?
Huntington's disease (HD) was described by George
Huntington (1850-1916) who was born in Long Island, New York. He described this
disorder in his only known written article called 'on chorea'.